En este glosario se recogen frases y palabras significativas para ayudar a entender los conceptos y procesos del aprendizaje.
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Aprendiendo a Aprender
"Learning how to learn is a process in which we all engage throughout our lives, although often we do not realise that we are, in fact, learning how to learn. Most of the time we concentrate on what we are learning rather than how we are learning it"
Fuente.- Open Univ, Curso online 'Learning How To Learn'
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about an educational technique. For active learning in the context of machine learning, see Active learning (machine learning).
Active learning is a model of instruction that focuses the responsibility of learning on learners. It was popularized in the 1990s by its appearance on the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) report (Bonwell & Eison 1991). In this report they discuss a variety of methodologies for promoting "active learning". They cite literature which indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. It relates to the three learning domains referred to as knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), and that this taxonomy of learning behaviours can be thought of as "the goals of the learning process" (Bloom, 1956). In particular, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Active learning engages students in two aspects – doing things and thinking about the things they are doing (Bonwell and Eison, 1991).
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One of the aims of PBL is the development of self-directed learning (SDL) skills.
In Loyens, Magda & Rikers' discussion, SDL is defined as "a process in which individuals take the initiative…in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating goals, identifying human and material resources, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes."
By being invited into the learning process, students are also invited to take responsibility for their learning, which leads to an increase in self-directed learning skills.
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Aprendizaje basado en problemas
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of creating a problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain knowledge. The PBL format originated from the medical school of thought, and is now used in other schools of thought too. It was developed at the McMaster University Medical School in Canada in the 1960s and has since spread around the world. The goals of PBL are to help the students develop flexible knowledge, effective problem solving skills, self-directed learning, effective collaboration skills and intrinsic motivation. Problem-based learning is a style of active learning.
Working in groups, students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to the resolution of the problem. which is more often lecture-based The role of the instructor (known as the tutor in PBL) is to facilitate learning by supporting, guiding, and monitoring the learning process. The tutor must build students' confidence to take on the problem, and encourage the students, while also stretching their understanding. PBL represents a paradigm shift from traditional teaching and learning philosophy, which is more often lecture-based. The constructs for teaching PBL are very different from traditional classroom/lecture teaching.
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"Individual learning is defined as the capacity to build knowledge through individual reflection about external stimuli and sources, and through the personal re-elaboration of individual knowledge and experience in light of interaction with others and the environment"
"El aprendizaje individual se define como la capacidad de construir conocimiento a través de la reflexión individual sobre estímulos y fuentes externas, y por medio de la re-elaboración personal de los conocimientos y la experiencia individual, a la luz de la interacción con los demás y con el entorno"
Prof David Merrill
"... the social context of a learning environment may provide support for its members, nevertheless the change in cognitive structure and the acquisition of knowledge and skill is and individual event"
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive load theory was developed out of the study of problem solving by John Sweller in the late 1980s. Sweller argued that instructional design can be used to reduce cognitive load in learners. Cognitive load theory differentiates cognitive load into three types: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema. Researchers Paas and Van Merriënboer developed a way to measure perceived mental effort which is indicative of cognitive load. Task-invoked pupillary response is a reliable and sensitive measurement of cognitive load that is directly related to working memory. Heavy cognitive load can have negative effects on task completion, and it is important to note that the experience of cognitive load is not the same in everyone. The elderly, students, and children experience different, and more often higher, amounts of cognitive load. High cognitive load in the elderly has been shown to affect their center of balance. With increased distractions and cell phone use students are more prone to experiencing high cognitive load which can reduce academic success. Children have less general knowledge than adults which increases their cognitive load.
"Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance". John Sweller's theory employs aspects of information processing theory to emphasize the inherent limitations of concurrent working memory load on learning during instruction
Cognitive load theory provides a general framework and has broad implications for instructional design, by allowing instructional designers to control the conditions of learning within an environment or, more generally, within most instructional materials. Specifically, it provides empirically-based guidelines that help instructional designers decrease extraneous cognitive load during learning and thus refocus the learner's attention toward germane materials, thereby increasing germane (schema related) cognitive load. This theory differentiates between three types of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load, germane cognitive load, and extraneous cognitive load.
Evidence has been found that individuals systematically differ in their processing capacity. For example, there are individual differences in processing capacities between novices and experts. Experts have more knowledge or experience with regard to a specific task which reduces the cognitive load associated with the task. Novices do not have this experience or knowledge and thus have heavier cognitive load.
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Estilos de Aprendizaje
"Los Estilos de Aprendizaje reflejan nuestras preferencias a la hora de aprender nuevos conceptos e ideas:
"Learning styles reflect our preferred ways of learning new concepts and ideas:
Fuente.- Open University, Curso online 'Learning How To Learn'
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Estilos de Aprendizaje (Kolb)
Based on Kolbs learning Cycle ... Peter Honey and Alan Mumford made an attempt to classify individuals into four groups based on their learning styles.
People who learn through doing and prefer activity baseddevelopment. They do not effectively, respond well to lectures or highlyreflective activity.. they prefer to learn through involving excercises,problems, tasks etc…
Reflectors are people who enjoy reviewing and consideringsituations and events.In groups they observe and reflect rather thanactively join or lead the discussion. They feel uncomfortable if they areput into limelight without prior warning.
Theorist like to know theories behind a piece of learning, theyprefer to learn from research, data, models and information. They likeLogic and are rational and analytical in a leaning situation. They will beuncomfortable with high emotion and feelings.
They prefer practicality to theory and learn effectively whenthey are able to apply the learning to the situation and the real world. They seek out new ideas and want to try them out drawing links betweenthe subject and their current jobs. Thus based on the learning styles of the individuals an appropriatelearning method must be designed for every individual.
Fuente: Individual Learning
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Habilidades de Aprendizaje
Learning skills (sometimes called study skills) are the basic tools of learning:
Fuente.- Open Univ, Curso Online 'Laeraning How To Learn'
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Memoria de trabajo
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Working memory is the system that is responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already stored information, an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating. Working memory is generally used synonymously with short term memory, but this depends on how the two forms of memory are defined. Working memory includes subsystems that store and manipulate visual images or verbal information, as well as a central executive that coordinates the subsystems. It includes visual representation of the possible moves, and awareness of the flow of information into and out of memory, all stored for a limited amount of time. Working memory tasks require monitoring (i.e., manipulation of information or behaviors) as part of completing goal-directed actions in the setting of interfering processes and distractions. The cognitive processes needed to achieve this include the executive and attention control of short-term memory, which permit interim integration, processing, disposal, and retrieval of information. These processes are sensitive to age: working memory is associated with cognitive development, and research shows that its capacity tends to decline with old age. Working memory is a theoretical concept central both to cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In addition, neurological studies demonstrate a link between working memory and learning and attention.
Theories exist both regarding the theoretical structure of working memory and the role of specific parts of the brain involved in working memory. Research identifies the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, and parts of the basal ganglia as crucial. The neural basis of working memory has been derived from lesion experiments in animals and functional imaging upon humans.
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pensamiento computacional. Este pensamiento fue definido recientemente por ISTE y CSTA como un proceso de solución de problemas que incluye, entre otros: analizar problemas, organizar y representar datos de manera lógica, automatizar soluciones mediante pensamiento algorítmico, usar abstracciones y modelos, comunicar procesos y resultados, reconocer patrones, y, generalizar y transferir
Computational Thinking is a problem-solving process that includes the following characteristics:[
Problem-based learning is an important element of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, also known as STEM, education in particular . The connection Computational Thinking makes in the context of problem solving processes is present in STEM focused classes. Characteristics of Computational Thinking reformulate problems by decomposing them into smaller and more manageable segments. These strategies enable students to transform complex problems into multiple step procedures that is not only easier to navigate through, but also provides an efficient way of thinking (Wing, 2006). In STEM education Computational Thinking is defined as a set of cognitive skills that let K-12 educators identify patterns, break apart complex problems into smaller steps , organize and create a series of steps to provide solutions, and build a representation of interacting data through simulations. Teachers in STEM focused classrooms that include Computational Thinking, allow students to practice problem-solving skills such as trial and error (Barr, et al, 2011).
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"Capacidad práctica para hacer 'algo' o realizar con éxito una 'tarea', referida a contextos particulares (p.e. cocinando) o a àreas generales de rendimiento (p.e. tener buena memoria, una mente lógica, ser creativo,...)".
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Skills based Learning
Skills based learning provides classroom environments where independence, thinking skills, collaboration and active learning are developed at the same time as knowledge is acquired.
WHAT IS SKILLS BASED LEARNING?
What does a good education give you? A store of useful facts needed for navigating the world of work? A set of flexible skills to manage change in an uncertain future? Educationalists and politicians argue to and fro between knowledge and skills. Truth be told a good education gives you both: one (knowledge) giving the other (skills) contexts to develop.
Research from NTL indicates that learners remember more effectively when they can use skills to access, process and express their knowledge. Findings indicate that teaching and assessing someone else is deemed more effective than listening to a lecture. If this is true then it's a good rationale for skills based learning: teaching and assessing one another needs planning, group work, creativity, enquiry, evaluation and self-confidence. Listening to a lecture calls on listening and maybe note-making.
SKILLS BASED TRAINING
Whatever the content of my training (creativity, boys' learning, G&T provision, leadership etc.) I design in opportunities for skills development including team work, independent enquiry, self-evaluation, problem solving, time management, effective communication and critical/creative thinking.
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Theory of Learning Cycle
Theory of Learning Cycle (By David Kolb)
In order to learn from an experience, you have to go through the learningcycle. David Kolb stated that for true learning to take place, we need tohave an experience, reflect upon the experience, make sense of it andfinally apply our theories to our lives by planning what we would do nexttime we were in the same or similar situation. Learning is inhibited when alearner misses one of Kolb’s stages
Las cuatro etapas del Aprendizaje:
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"Maneras particulares de aplicar nuestra mente para resolver problemas; esenciales para un aprendizaje efectivo".
"Capacidad práctica para pensar de una manera mas o menos efectiva"
"Hábitos de comportamiento inteligente aprendidos por medio de la práctica y de la repetición"
"Capacidades mentales que usamos para investigar el entorno, resolver problemas, generar significado y emitir juicios".
Thinking Skills, Robert Fisher
"Thinking Skills are the mental processes we use to do things like: solve problems, make decisions, ask questions, make plans, pass judgements, organise information and create new ideas. Often we're not aware of our thinking - it happens automatically - but if we take time to ponder what's going on then we can become more efficient and more creative with our minds",
Necesidad, pues, de IDENTIFICAR cuáles son las Habilidades clave del pensamiento humano. Quizás la propuesta mas famosa sea la Taxonomía de BLOOM de Thinking Skills'.
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Capacidad demostrada por parte del estudiante para utilizar conocimientos y habilidades.
Las hay de tipo transversal y específica.
Forma parte de la definición de un plan docente
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Entorno complejo de conocimiento personal
Es el punto de partida del proceso de aprendizaje, en un contexto de contenidos / conversaciones en un entorno complejo.
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Es una expresión que trata de aunar a personas de diferentes perfiles y capacidades en torno a una motivación común.
Este espacio de encuentro y creación pude ofrecer soluciones a la incertidumbre.
Saber gestionar dicho espacio requiere aplicar muchas de las competencias que se esperan en un líder y exige mantener en todo momento una actitud creativa y una visión global y sistémica.
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Gestión del conocimiento personal
En sus siglas en inglés: PKM
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Son las capacidades de los aprendices para tener un un rol activo y responsable en su vida personal, en su entorno de trabajo y la sociedad en general.
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Verbos que se suelen utilizar para describirlos:
Forman parte fundamental de un Plan Docente
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En la RAE tenemos que: "Capacidad humana de asumir con flexibilidad situaciones límite y sobreponerse a ellas".
Es una de las habilidades necesarias para el aprendizaje en el entorno de Internet
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Resultados del aprendizaje
Ejemplos de verbos que se usan habitualmente para describir los resultados de aprendizaje:
Es un elemento habitual de la definición de un plan docente.
Para definir los resultados del aprendizaje, se debe usar declaraciones que contienen un verbo de acción, un contenido sobre el cual el estudiante tiene que actuar y un contexto en el que se producirá la ejecución. Es mejor evitar el uso de verbos tales como saber, comprender, conocer o ser consciente de que no son evaluables ni medibles.