En este glosario se recogen frases y palabras significativas para ayudar a entender los conceptos y procesos del aprendizaje.
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(Last edited: Monday, 6 April 2015, 11:39 AM)
Memoria de trabajo
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Working memory is the system that is responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already stored information, an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating. Working memory is generally used synonymously with short term memory, but this depends on how the two forms of memory are defined. Working memory includes subsystems that store and manipulate visual images or verbal information, as well as a central executive that coordinates the subsystems. It includes visual representation of the possible moves, and awareness of the flow of information into and out of memory, all stored for a limited amount of time. Working memory tasks require monitoring (i.e., manipulation of information or behaviors) as part of completing goal-directed actions in the setting of interfering processes and distractions. The cognitive processes needed to achieve this include the executive and attention control of short-term memory, which permit interim integration, processing, disposal, and retrieval of information. These processes are sensitive to age: working memory is associated with cognitive development, and research shows that its capacity tends to decline with old age. Working memory is a theoretical concept central both to cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In addition, neurological studies demonstrate a link between working memory and learning and attention.
Theories exist both regarding the theoretical structure of working memory and the role of specific parts of the brain involved in working memory. Research identifies the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, and parts of the basal ganglia as crucial. The neural basis of working memory has been derived from lesion experiments in animals and functional imaging upon humans.
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pensamiento computacional. Este pensamiento fue definido recientemente por ISTE y CSTA como un proceso de solución de problemas que incluye, entre otros: analizar problemas, organizar y representar datos de manera lógica, automatizar soluciones mediante pensamiento algorítmico, usar abstracciones y modelos, comunicar procesos y resultados, reconocer patrones, y, generalizar y transferir
Computational Thinking is a problem-solving process that includes the following characteristics:[
Problem-based learning is an important element of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, also known as STEM, education in particular . The connection Computational Thinking makes in the context of problem solving processes is present in STEM focused classes. Characteristics of Computational Thinking reformulate problems by decomposing them into smaller and more manageable segments. These strategies enable students to transform complex problems into multiple step procedures that is not only easier to navigate through, but also provides an efficient way of thinking (Wing, 2006). In STEM education Computational Thinking is defined as a set of cognitive skills that let K-12 educators identify patterns, break apart complex problems into smaller steps , organize and create a series of steps to provide solutions, and build a representation of interacting data through simulations. Teachers in STEM focused classrooms that include Computational Thinking, allow students to practice problem-solving skills such as trial and error (Barr, et al, 2011).
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"Capacidad práctica para hacer 'algo' o realizar con éxito una 'tarea', referida a contextos particulares (p.e. cocinando) o a àreas generales de rendimiento (p.e. tener buena memoria, una mente lógica, ser creativo,...)".
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Skills based Learning
Skills based learning provides classroom environments where independence, thinking skills, collaboration and active learning are developed at the same time as knowledge is acquired.
WHAT IS SKILLS BASED LEARNING?
What does a good education give you? A store of useful facts needed for navigating the world of work? A set of flexible skills to manage change in an uncertain future? Educationalists and politicians argue to and fro between knowledge and skills. Truth be told a good education gives you both: one (knowledge) giving the other (skills) contexts to develop.
Research from NTL indicates that learners remember more effectively when they can use skills to access, process and express their knowledge. Findings indicate that teaching and assessing someone else is deemed more effective than listening to a lecture. If this is true then it's a good rationale for skills based learning: teaching and assessing one another needs planning, group work, creativity, enquiry, evaluation and self-confidence. Listening to a lecture calls on listening and maybe note-making.
SKILLS BASED TRAINING
Whatever the content of my training (creativity, boys' learning, G&T provision, leadership etc.) I design in opportunities for skills development including team work, independent enquiry, self-evaluation, problem solving, time management, effective communication and critical/creative thinking.
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Theory of Learning Cycle
Theory of Learning Cycle (By David Kolb)
In order to learn from an experience, you have to go through the learningcycle. David Kolb stated that for true learning to take place, we need tohave an experience, reflect upon the experience, make sense of it andfinally apply our theories to our lives by planning what we would do nexttime we were in the same or similar situation. Learning is inhibited when alearner misses one of Kolb’s stages
Las cuatro etapas del Aprendizaje:
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"Maneras particulares de aplicar nuestra mente para resolver problemas; esenciales para un aprendizaje efectivo".
"Capacidad práctica para pensar de una manera mas o menos efectiva"
"Hábitos de comportamiento inteligente aprendidos por medio de la práctica y de la repetición"
"Capacidades mentales que usamos para investigar el entorno, resolver problemas, generar significado y emitir juicios".
Thinking Skills, Robert Fisher
"Thinking Skills are the mental processes we use to do things like: solve problems, make decisions, ask questions, make plans, pass judgements, organise information and create new ideas. Often we're not aware of our thinking - it happens automatically - but if we take time to ponder what's going on then we can become more efficient and more creative with our minds",
Necesidad, pues, de IDENTIFICAR cuáles son las Habilidades clave del pensamiento humano. Quizás la propuesta mas famosa sea la Taxonomía de BLOOM de Thinking Skills'.