En este glosario se recogen frases y palabras significativas para ayudar a entender los conceptos y procesos del aprendizaje.
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Aprendiendo a Aprender
"Learning how to learn is a process in which we all engage throughout our lives, although often we do not realise that we are, in fact, learning how to learn. Most of the time we concentrate on what we are learning rather than how we are learning it"
Fuente.- Open Univ, Curso online 'Learning How To Learn'
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about an educational technique. For active learning in the context of machine learning, see Active learning (machine learning).
Active learning is a model of instruction that focuses the responsibility of learning on learners. It was popularized in the 1990s by its appearance on the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) report (Bonwell & Eison 1991). In this report they discuss a variety of methodologies for promoting "active learning". They cite literature which indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. It relates to the three learning domains referred to as knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), and that this taxonomy of learning behaviours can be thought of as "the goals of the learning process" (Bloom, 1956). In particular, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Active learning engages students in two aspects – doing things and thinking about the things they are doing (Bonwell and Eison, 1991).
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One of the aims of PBL is the development of self-directed learning (SDL) skills.
In Loyens, Magda & Rikers' discussion, SDL is defined as "a process in which individuals take the initiative…in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating goals, identifying human and material resources, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes."
By being invited into the learning process, students are also invited to take responsibility for their learning, which leads to an increase in self-directed learning skills.
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Aprendizaje basado en problemas
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of creating a problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain knowledge. The PBL format originated from the medical school of thought, and is now used in other schools of thought too. It was developed at the McMaster University Medical School in Canada in the 1960s and has since spread around the world. The goals of PBL are to help the students develop flexible knowledge, effective problem solving skills, self-directed learning, effective collaboration skills and intrinsic motivation. Problem-based learning is a style of active learning.
Working in groups, students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to the resolution of the problem. which is more often lecture-based The role of the instructor (known as the tutor in PBL) is to facilitate learning by supporting, guiding, and monitoring the learning process. The tutor must build students' confidence to take on the problem, and encourage the students, while also stretching their understanding. PBL represents a paradigm shift from traditional teaching and learning philosophy, which is more often lecture-based. The constructs for teaching PBL are very different from traditional classroom/lecture teaching.
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"Individual learning is defined as the capacity to build knowledge through individual reflection about external stimuli and sources, and through the personal re-elaboration of individual knowledge and experience in light of interaction with others and the environment"
"El aprendizaje individual se define como la capacidad de construir conocimiento a través de la reflexión individual sobre estímulos y fuentes externas, y por medio de la re-elaboración personal de los conocimientos y la experiencia individual, a la luz de la interacción con los demás y con el entorno"
Prof David Merrill
"... the social context of a learning environment may provide support for its members, nevertheless the change in cognitive structure and the acquisition of knowledge and skill is and individual event"
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive load theory was developed out of the study of problem solving by John Sweller in the late 1980s. Sweller argued that instructional design can be used to reduce cognitive load in learners. Cognitive load theory differentiates cognitive load into three types: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema. Researchers Paas and Van Merriënboer developed a way to measure perceived mental effort which is indicative of cognitive load. Task-invoked pupillary response is a reliable and sensitive measurement of cognitive load that is directly related to working memory. Heavy cognitive load can have negative effects on task completion, and it is important to note that the experience of cognitive load is not the same in everyone. The elderly, students, and children experience different, and more often higher, amounts of cognitive load. High cognitive load in the elderly has been shown to affect their center of balance. With increased distractions and cell phone use students are more prone to experiencing high cognitive load which can reduce academic success. Children have less general knowledge than adults which increases their cognitive load.
"Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance". John Sweller's theory employs aspects of information processing theory to emphasize the inherent limitations of concurrent working memory load on learning during instruction
Cognitive load theory provides a general framework and has broad implications for instructional design, by allowing instructional designers to control the conditions of learning within an environment or, more generally, within most instructional materials. Specifically, it provides empirically-based guidelines that help instructional designers decrease extraneous cognitive load during learning and thus refocus the learner's attention toward germane materials, thereby increasing germane (schema related) cognitive load. This theory differentiates between three types of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load, germane cognitive load, and extraneous cognitive load.
Evidence has been found that individuals systematically differ in their processing capacity. For example, there are individual differences in processing capacities between novices and experts. Experts have more knowledge or experience with regard to a specific task which reduces the cognitive load associated with the task. Novices do not have this experience or knowledge and thus have heavier cognitive load.
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Estilos de Aprendizaje
"Los Estilos de Aprendizaje reflejan nuestras preferencias a la hora de aprender nuevos conceptos e ideas:
"Learning styles reflect our preferred ways of learning new concepts and ideas:
Fuente.- Open University, Curso online 'Learning How To Learn'
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Estilos de Aprendizaje (Kolb)
Based on Kolbs learning Cycle ... Peter Honey and Alan Mumford made an attempt to classify individuals into four groups based on their learning styles.
People who learn through doing and prefer activity baseddevelopment. They do not effectively, respond well to lectures or highlyreflective activity.. they prefer to learn through involving excercises,problems, tasks etc…
Reflectors are people who enjoy reviewing and consideringsituations and events.In groups they observe and reflect rather thanactively join or lead the discussion. They feel uncomfortable if they areput into limelight without prior warning.
Theorist like to know theories behind a piece of learning, theyprefer to learn from research, data, models and information. They likeLogic and are rational and analytical in a leaning situation. They will beuncomfortable with high emotion and feelings.
They prefer practicality to theory and learn effectively whenthey are able to apply the learning to the situation and the real world. They seek out new ideas and want to try them out drawing links betweenthe subject and their current jobs. Thus based on the learning styles of the individuals an appropriatelearning method must be designed for every individual.
Fuente: Individual Learning
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Habilidades de Aprendizaje
Learning skills (sometimes called study skills) are the basic tools of learning:
Fuente.- Open Univ, Curso Online 'Laeraning How To Learn'
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